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Liturgical Timeline of the Roman Liturgy

Initially, this timeline has been setup by using some off-site articles at The Catholic Liturgical Library in 2001. In the meantime these articles and even this website disappeared.

At the moment this Timeline is under revision at which the following books are used:
a     The Mass: a study of the Roman Liturgy, Adrian Fortescue (1874-1923).
b     The Traditional Mass - History, Form and Theology of the Classical Roman Riteby Michael Fiedrowicz (2011/2019), Angelico Press ISBN 978-1-62138-523-3
c     The Genius & Timeliness of the Traditional Latin Mass, Peter Kwasniewski (2020), Angelico Press ISBN 978-1-62138-535-6

!-- 11th century --!>
Century
General Remarks on the Development of the Liturgy
Some introductory remarks:
     The first proclamation of the gospel by the apostles at Pentecost was undoubtedly oral. Christ left us no written Revelation. He taught His disciples orally and by His example. And after His Ascension, he sent them the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, which directly inspired them to preach the Gospel of Christ orally, not waiting to have the Gospel written firstly.
     It took about 30 years of oral preaching before the Gospel was put into writing by only three of the Apostles independently of each other. Thus, the oral preaching and example of the Apostles still remained the main source of the spread of the Gospel. And the fact that the fourth Gospel of St. John was written about 30 years later and is clearly complementary in character confirms that the oral Preaching of the Gospel by the Apostles was more extensive than the written summaries. Apparently St. John was inspired by the Holy Spirit to write this additional Gospel because of the appearance of heresies.
     Also, the "Acts of the Apostles", the written Testimony of the examples given by the Apostles, is clearly not a daily record. It deals only with the main examples of the early years of preaching by the Apostles. In addition, the various Letters of the Apostles are more or less specifically addressed to some local Churches that they had bequeathed to one of their disciples as Bishops, in order to inspire and correct these Churches.
     It should be understood well that with the death of the (last) Apostles, who were taught by Christ directly, the Age of Revelation has ended. A new era begins in which the Revelation proclaimed by the Apostles was consolidated as a beautiful Treasure that had to be guarded and protected from any alteration of the Revelation. This made clear that a deepening of the Faith only can be allowed within this condition as frormulated by Pope John XXIII in his opening address: "Never depart from the sacred heritage of truth received from the Church Fathers" and remain "in unity and in accord with the teachings of the Church Fathers". It is, specifically, this reason why the Popes vows to guard and protect the Faith at his installation. Until, recently, Pope Paul VI abolished this vow.
      Reminding that heretici are of all times. Looking at the first three centuries St. Alphonsus M. Liguori named about 30 heresies. Even during the Apostolic time some baptized but heretical faithful were preaching contradictory to the preaching of the like: Simon Magus, known from Acts 8:10 and his disciple Menander and Saturninus and Basilides, the disciples of Menander. Altough Simon Magus is well known as the one who want to buy the power of the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:10), he broached also many other errors, like (1) the world was created by angels, (2) that when the soul leaves the body it enters into another body (reïncarnation) and (3) that man had no free will, consequently, good works are not necessary for salvation. As such Simon Magus can be considered as the father of the Gnostics.

     None of the Apostles' documents are written specifically to describe and explain the Sacred Liturgy to those whom they ordained Priests and Bishops respectively, so that they may properly celebrate the Sacred Mysteries. On the contrary, this subject belongs mainly to the oral Tradition of the teachings of the Apostles and their successors. In addition, written sources contain only indirect indications and certain (vague) descriptions, in order to protect the Holy of Holies against misuses. Therefore, our knowledge of the origin of the Liturgy depends mainly on the general oral Tradition, while the restricted written fragments on this subject has to be interpret in accordance to the Oral Tradition.
     It is from this Tradition, we know that:
  • our Lord Jesus Christ gave the Church the Liturgy by planting the seed of the Living Faith in the hearts of the Apostles, and that He also sent the Holy Spirit, under Whose guidance and protection this seed organically could grow into a plant with beautiful flowers.
  • our Lord Jesus Christ did not abolish the Temple Service, on the contrary He perfected the Temple Service by sacrificing His own Body as the High Priest. Isn't this the true synaxis of the Holy Mass, where this perfection of the Temple service is made present by the daily presentation in the H. Mass of that one Sacrifice, His Flesh and Blood.
     The purpose of this Timeline is to provide insight through the visualization of this organic development into how the Seed planted in the hearts by Christ has led by deepening to the current situation, especially regarding the Latin Liturgy.
Timeline of the Liturgy, the "Lex Orandi, Lex Credendi"
1st
Apostolic time
Liturgical fragments in the New Testament
     According Adrian Fortescue [a, p6] we know or may deduce with reasonable certainty from the texts of the New Testament that:
  • The Jewish Christians at first continued to attend the services of the Temple in Jerusalem (Acts 3:1, Lk 24:52-53) following the example of the Lord (Lk 4:15-15, Lk 6:6, John 23:20) and if they were outside Jerusalem they went to the Synagogues services (Acts 9:20). But even before the breach with Judaism the Christians had their own meetings distinct from the Sabbath they were made chiefly on Sunday (Acts 20:7).
  • The Synaxis is based on a Synagogue Service [01].
    • Readings from the Holy Books, Sermons on what has been read, Psalms, Hymns, Prayers, Almsgiving, Profession of Faith and Kiss of Peace
  • The Eucharist Proper [01].
    • The four accounts of the Last Supper (Mt.26:26-28; Mk. 14:22-24; Lk.22:19-20; 1Cor. 11:23-25) are showing the essential nucleus of the Sacred Liturgy in any Rite.
    • Prayer of Thankgiving, Blessing of Bread and Wine by the words of Institution, Prayers remembering Christ's death and People eat and drink the consecrated bread and wine
      [01]     Note:
           Adrian Fortescue [a, p6] and others, like Pio Parsch and Jungman made a distinction between two parts of the liturgy, namely the ordinary synaxis of the Synagogue and the Eucharist proper.
      This distinction, however, ignores the fact that the main religious Service of the Jews was the Temple Service in Jerusalem. The Synagogue Service was for the Jews outside Jerusalem only. It was secondary and derived from the Temple Service without the Sacrifice, while the Sacrifice could only take place in the Temple of Jerusalem. Moreover, Christ confirmed the importance of the Temple several times by His example (Lk 2:22:38, 2:41-52; John 2:13-25). And finally, He did so much more explicitly. He confirmed its importance through the fact that he went to Jerusalem to Sacrify Himself at the Cross. He did not go to one of the Synagogues for that. Christ never abolished the Temple Service, on the contrary he perfected that Service through the H. Mass.
      By referring the first part to the Synagogue Service, silencing the Temple Service and then in the matter of the Eucharist Proper exclusively referring to the Last Supper as the essential nucleus of the Sacred Liturgy in every Rite, the true Sacrificial Act of the Temple Service, perfected by Christ in His Sacrifice on the Cross of Calvary, is concealed. Isn't this paving the way for the heresy of lowering the Mass to an open meal?
      Therefore, it is only because of the undisclosed nature of the Sacrifice why these two distinct parts can be found in all Rites. Each Holy Mass is the one perfected Temple Service with Christ as high priest, but here and now represented by the ordained priests "in Persona Christi".
Apostolic Fathers
Liturgical fragments by the Apostolic Fathers [a, p8-p16]
  • Didache, the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (80-100);
  • The first Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians (96-98);;
  • Epistle of Barnabas (96-98);
  • The letters of St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch (+107);
  • St. Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna. Martyred in 155;
  • the Sheperd of Hermas, probably the middle of the second century;
  • Diognetus, second century.
   Accordance to Adrian Fortesque [a, p8-p16] we know or may deduce with reasonable certainty from the Apostolic Fathers that:
  • The Eucharist was celebrated every Sunday supplanting the Sabbath;
  • There was at any rate a certain amount of uniformity and a fixed order in the Liturgy, which was believed to come from our Lord. So even in the very earliest period these services are not merely prayer-meetings arranged according to the caprice of people;
  • Sanctus and Our Father;
  • The dogmatic importance of the confession before Communion;
  • The Eucharist is a sacrifice;
  • A long liturgical prayer can be found in the first Epistle of Clement;
  • There is a graduated hierarchy, of which each order has its own duties, the clergy are clearly distinguished from laity.
2nd
Liturgical fragments from Second Century Wittnesses
   St. Justin is the chief of the early apologists. He was a pagan convert martyred about the year 167.
He left us a first detailed description how the Christians of Rome in his time celebrated the Holy Liturgy [a, p16-p28]:
  • The most important components of this Eucharistic celebration are a liturgy of the Word, which includes Old and New Testament readings, sermons and intercessory prayers, followed by a Eucharistic prayer of blessing of fiber bread and wine mixed with water, from which those present receive.
    1. Lessons from the Bible, as long as time allows;
    2. Sermon by the Bishop;
    3. Prayers said by all standing for all kinds people;
    4. Kiss of Peace;
    5. Bread and wine with water are brought up and received by Bishop;
    6. Thanksgiving (Eucharistic prayer, Anaphora) said by the Bishop;
    7. Memory of our Lord's passion, including the words of institution;
    8. The peole end this prayer saying 'Amen';
    9. Communion under both kinds;
    10. A collection for the poor.
    Liturgical Families

       Since various groups of rites has been developed in the East and West, which corresponded to different basic types of celebration of Eucharistic. The patriarchal seats of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch became notable as crystallization centers of liturgical tradition (Fiedrowizc).
       If the celebration of Mass in the various rite families of the 4th century had individual peculiarities, but at the same time had a structural unity in principle as it has been described in the first century by some Apostolic Fathers. This can only be explained by the fact that the Eucharist received its uniform basic form in the circle of the Apostles, even before they diverged in order to proclaim the Gospel to all the world. (Fiedrowicz).
    Rome
    East
    Roman or Latin Liturgy
    other Liturgies
    3rd
    Papal Mass is the Missa Normative, all others forms - Pontifical, High and Low Masses - are derived from it; sacral language
    Greec
    orientation
    to the East:

    In the year 375, St. Basil of Ceasarea, one of the greatest Fathers of the Church, speaks of the apostolic custom of "turning to the east at the [Eucharitic] prayer" (P. Kwasniewski, p33

    The Basilica's and other Churches were indeed designed on the practise of the apostolic costum: "towards the east" and in accordance to the Temple Service as well:
    1. the Court / Narthex
    2. the Nave at which the baptized faithfull were standing and praying, man and woman separated
    3. the Sanctuary, reserved for the ordained priests who represent the one High Priest, Christ ("in Peronna Christi").
    North African Liturgy;
    Ambrosian Liturgy (Milan);
    Old-Gallic Liturgy;
    Celtic Liturgy;
    Mozarabic Liturgy;
    Dominican Liturgy;
    Carmelites Liturgy;
    Carthusian Liturgy.
    Alexandria
    Coptic liturgy
    Ethiopian liturgy
    Antioch
    West Sirian liturgy
    (Malakar liturgy - Malabar liturgy - Maronite liturgy)
    East Sirian liturgy
    (Chaldetic liturgy - Syro-Malabar liturgy)
    Byzantium
    (Constantinopel)
    Greek Liturgy
    Turkey, Greek and Cyprus Slavic Liturgy
    Russia, Serbia, Ucrain and Bulgary
    4th
    Transition from Greec to Latin under Pope Damasus I (366-348)
    5th
    Latin
    6th
    7th
    8th
    9th
    10th
    11th
    12th
    13th
    14th
    15th
    16th
    1570
       The Roman Liturgy has been established as universal obligued in the Roman Church after some small reforms by the Council of Trent.
       Since the Reformation's influence spanned a period of nearly 200 years, in which it affected the local use of the Liturgy, a measure was introduced banning all liturgical forms that could not be proven to exist for more than 200 years.
    17th
    18th
    19th
    20th
    1969
    1. With the reform of 1969 the Parish Comunity Mass became the Missa Normative, all others forms are derived from it;
    1969
    1. Despite Latin is the normative text, vernacular translations are generally in use
    ;
    1969
    1. rebuilding the interior of the church in contradiction to the Temple Servic
    2. the Holy Sacrament has been replaced from the center of the Sanctuary.
    3. replacing the altar for a table
    4. priests turned themselves towards the faithful
    5. the Holy Sacrament has been replaced from the center.
    21th


    century
    Opening
    Introit antifoon
    Prayers at the foot of the Altar
    Confiteor
    Kyrie litany
    Gloria
    collect
    1th
    Psalms sung at the processional entering of the priest."
    Music of some kind is a very old and almost inevitable accompaniment od any procession, and the only hymn-book of the early Church was the book of Psalms. It was from that psalter that the Church took all her chants.
    Private preparation prayers said by priest with no set form followed by a private admission of sin said while approaching the altar. Originally part of prayers aid by priest as he approched the altar with no set form. In use by Churches in the East.
    2nd
    c. 128-139:
    Pope Telsphorus supposedly added first half of Gloria to Christmas Mass.
    3rd
    4th
    c.360: 
    St. Hillary translated the rest of the Gloria that we have today.
    Date uncertain:
    Legend attributes original collects to Pope Damascus (366-384)
    5th
    ca. 397: 
    St. Ambrose introduced practice of singing an antiphon before and after the psalm.
    422-423: 
    The Liber Pontificalis the Introit-psalm to Pope Celestine.
    Usually said with a profound bow or kneeling. V-VI Century: 
    First record of collects found in missal.
    6th
    ca. 500: 
    Introduced into the Roman rite from the East with the addition of "Christe eleison" and a litany Sung alternating between clergy and faithful.
    c.498-514: 
    Pope Symmachus extended use of Gloria to all Sundays and births of martyrs but limited its use to bishops.
    7th
    8th
    ca. 700-900: 
    Psalm shrunk to one verse with antiphons.
    9th
    890-1000: 
    Litany gradually dropped. Triple repetition of Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie becomes norm.
    10th
    Middle Ages: 
    Any embelishments added to elaborate on the psalm and fill the complicated melodies.
    ca. 900:
    Psalm 43 becomes a commonly used prayer followed by a confiteor and the "Aufer a nobis." To avoid rushing, prayers are said while at the foot of the alter.
    11th
    1080: 
    Basic form of current Confiteor used at Cluny.
    Middel Ages: 
    Variety of texts inserted to fill up complicated melodies.
    11th century:
    Priests given permission to use Gloria same as bishops
    12th
    1184:
    Cistercian order added Mary to list of saints petitioned.
    Middle Ages:
    Many additional parts inserted into Gloria agains wishes of Rome
    ca. 1100: 
    Use of multiple collects adopted by Rome from Northern Europe.
    13th
    14th
    1314: 
    3rd Council of Ravenna limits saints petitioned by name to those in the current Tridentine form.
    15th
    16th
    1570: 
    Simple form restored with promulgation of Tridentine Missal.
    1570: 
    Prayers set in final form following Council of Trent.
    1570: 
    Norm in Rome made universal in Tridentine Missal.
    1570: 
    Extraneous texts removed. Triple repetition restored.
    1570: 
    Additions abolished
    1570: 
    Number of collects decreased to one for almost all occasions.
    17th
    1600-1900:
    Gradually dropped as a processional
    18th
    19th
    20th
    1907: 
    restored as processional music
    1969: 
    Made optional said when there is no processional song.
    1969: 
    Prayers abolished. 
    1969: 
    Confiteor re-written and added to new penitential rite as an option.
    1969: 
    Triple repetition dropped. Now is just a responsory.
    1969: 
    Number of collects decreased to one for all days.
    21st
    century
    II. Scriptural Sevice
    Readings
    Graduale And Alleluia
    Dismissal
    Homily
    Gospel
    Creed
    1th
    Lessons from Bible read from earliest times. No set length or selections
    2nd
    3rd
    4th
    5th
    V Century: 
    Number of readings reduced to two with a fixed length
    6th
    7th
    VII Century: 
    Number of readings reduced to one from the Epistles except on certain feasts
    8th
    9th
    10th
    11th
    12th
    13th
    14th
    15th
    16th
    17th
    18th
    19th
    20th
    1907: 
    restored as processional music
    1969: 
    Made optional said when there is no processional song.
    1969: 
    Number of readings for Sundays increased to two and a three year cycle of readings created
    21th




    century
    1st
    2nd
    3rd
    4th
    5th
    6th
    7th
    8th
    9th
    10th
    11th
    12th
    13th
    14th
    15th
    16th
    17th
    18th
    19th
    20th
    21st
    Scriptural Sevice
    Gradual and Alleluia
    Psalms originally sung between readings followed by Alleluia VI Century:

    Length reduced from entire psalm to two verses.

    VII Century: 

    When number of readings was reduced second psalm (tract) dropped except on certain occasions. Alleluia combined with graduale

    1969: 

    New responsorial psalms written as options in place of Gradual and Tract

    Dismissal of Cathechumens
    Until the end of the sixth century catechumens were dismissed from the church at this time In all other rites the catechumens were dismissed after the sermon.   1973: 

    New Rite of Christian Initiation provides option for a dismissal of the cathechumens after the homily.

    Gospel
    The Gospel was originally read by a male lector and did not have a fixed length ca. 400: 

    Reading the gospel became the duty of the Deacon.

    Homily
    The sermon was given from the earliest times but was not a usual practice at all Masses in Rome 1563: 

    Council of Trent commanded that sermons be given at all Sunday and feast day and other times deamed appropriate.

    1969: 

    Regulations concerning sermons reafirmed in GIRM

    Creed
      1014:

    Nicene Creed added to the Mass on Sundays and feasts

    century
    1st
    2nd
    3rd
    4th
    5th
    6th
    7th
    8th
    9th
    10th
    11th
    12th
    13th
    14th
    15th
    16th
    17th
    18th
    19th
    20th
    21st
    Eucharist
    Prayers of the Faithful
    Prayers where said for the Church, state, poor, enemies, travelers, prisoners and anyone else thought to be in need of spiritual help. ca.500: 

    Prayers dropped except for a litany on Good Friday, possibly because the prayers were seen as repetative of the prayers in the Canon.

    1969: 

    Prayers of the Faithful restored.

    Offertory Procession
    The faithful would bring forward gifts of bread and wine for the consecration. Whatever was not consecrated was distributed to the poor. ca. 400: 

    Other churches began preparing the gifts before Mass and held a solemn procession at this time.

    ca. 900: 

    Practice of bringing bread and wine along with the offertory procession disappears.

    1969: 

    Offertory procession restored but people no longer bring bread and wine from home.

    Offertory Chant
    A psalm was sung during the Offertory procession c.300-400: 

    Psalm shortened to a few verses with an antiphon.

    ca. 1000-1100: 

    Shortened again to just an antiphon.

    1969: 

    Made optional. Sung if there is not an offertory song.

    Offertory Prayers
      ca. 1300: 

    Various offertory prayers came to be used in all parts of Europe.

    1570: 

    Prayers set into one form in the Tridentine Missal taking parts from various regions.

    1969: 

    Prayers rewritten and shortened.

    Lavabo
    from the earliest times:

    Washing of hands has been done usually twice, once after receiving the gifts and again in its curent location. There were no fixed prayers

    1400: 

    First washing vanished and Psalm 25 becomes a common prayer during the remaining washing.

    1570: 

    Psalm 25 is made the universal prayer to the Holy Trinity in use in parst of Europe also made universal

    1969: 

    Psalm 25 abolished.
    Replaced with a one-sentence prayer.
    Prayer to the Holy Trinity droppen

    Orate Fratres
      ca. 1400: 

    Various forms come into use asking the people to pray for the worthiness of the sacrifice.

    1570: 

    Form standarized in Tridentine Missal

    Secret
    Said silently from earliest times and always had different forms for different feasts. 1969: 

    Secret made audible

    Preface
    Originally not considered separate from the Canon. Was much longer and contained a list op p1etitions ca. 600: 

    Number of prefaces grew to 267.

    ca. 700: 

    Number of prefaces reduced to 54 including the most common preface still used today.

    ca. 800: 

    Number of prefaces reduced to 10, all of which are found in the Tridentine Missal. Preface now concidered a separate portion of the Mass

    Middle Ages: 

    Number of prefaces increased to fifteen.
     
     

     

    1969: Number of prefaces increased to 55.
    century
    1st
    2nd
    3rd
    4th
    5th
    6th
    7th
    8th
    9th
    10th
    11th
    12th
    13th
    14th
    15th
    16th
    17th
    18th
    19th
    20th
    21st
    Sanctus
    ca.119-128: 

    Attributed to Pope Sixtus I. Sung at solemn feasts.

    529: 

    council of Vaison orders Sanctus to be sung at all Masses

    The Canon to the Consecration
    Original form of Canon is unknown. Writing from the 4th century contain many of the same prayers as in the Tridentine Mass but in a different order. ca.

    500: Prayers set in order found in Tridentine Mass.

    589: 

    St. Gregory set Canon in current form found in Tridentine Mass

    ca. 750 

    Canon said silently

    1960: 

    St Joseph added to the Canon1969:

    Three new Eucharistic Prayers added. Canon kept as an option.
    2 Eucharistic Prayers of reconciliation added.

    Consecration
    Original form was a blending of different gospel accounts. ca. 600: 

    Words of consecration same as in Tridentine Mass.

    Middle Ages: 

    Various ceremonies such as elevation of host and chalice and ringing of bells added. No set form.

    1570: 

    Ceremonial form set for Tridentine Mass.

    1969: 

    Words of consecration reformed; phrase "mysterium fidei" removed

    Mystery of Faith
    1969: 

    Phrase "mysterium fidei" removed from consecration and made into a new responsory.

    To the end of the Canon
    Original form of Canon is unknown:

    Writings from the 4th century contain many of the same prayers as in the Tridentine Mass but in a different order.

    ca. 500: 

    in order found in Tridentine Mass

    589:

    Women listed in Canon possibly added by St. Gregory.

    ca. 750: 

    Canon said silent

    1969: 

    Three new Eucharistic Prayers added. Canon kept as an option.
    2 Eucharistic Prayers of reconciliation added

    Pater Noster
    Pater Noster has been a part of all liturgies from the earliest times. Originally was said after Communion in Rome. ca. 589: 

    St. Gregory claims to have moved the Pater Noster to its current location

    Sign of Peace
    Sign of Peace has been a part of all liturgies. Originally came before the Canon. ca. 400: 

    Sign of Peace moved after the fraction and commixture.

    Middle Ages: 

    Practice of passing the peace from the priest to the deacon and to the faithful becomes common.

    Late Middle Ages: 

    Practice slowly fades until it is a formality exchanged between the clergy at high Masses

    1969: 

    Sign if Peace moved to its current location with the option for a general exchange of peace.

    century
    1st
    2nd
    3rd
    4th
    5th
    6th
    7th
    8th
    9th
    10th
    11th
    12th
    13th
    14th
    15th
    16th
    17th
    18th
    19th
    20th
    21st
    Fraction
    Fraction was originally a much more complicated ritual involving laying out the broken host in the sign of the cross Ceremony involved in the fraction gradually dwindled until it reached its present form.  
    Agnus Dei
      -- XIIth Century:

    Current triple repetition ending in dona nobis pacem adopted but some churches end with miserere nobis instead.Middle Ages:

    Additional texts inserted and often used as a communion song.

    1570: 

    Additional texts dropped.

    Commixture
    Placing of a particle of the Host into the chalice is ancient and originally was done twice/ First, apiece of the Host from the previous Mass was added at the Pax. Second, right before Communion. Xth Century: 

    First commixture disappears

    XIVth Century: 

    Current practice which is a shortened version of rite becomes the norm.

    Communion of the Priest
    From the earliest times:

    the priest received Communion before everyone.

    IXth-Xth Century :

    Prayers for holiness and grace appear in some missals but are not universally used.

    Middle ages: 

    Other prayers introduced but original prayers are most common and eventually become norm.

    1969: 

    Priest now chooses between the prayers instead of saying both.

    Communion Prayers
      Late Middle Ages: 

    Prayers said before distribution of Communion outside of Mass become common during Mass. No set form.

    1614: 

    confiteor, Ecce Agnus Dei and Domine Non Sum Dignus added to Roman Missal

    1962: 

    Confiteor dropped

    Communion of the Faithful
    From the earliest times: 

    the faithful received Communion under both species, standing. The Host was distributed in de hand but women were reguired to have a cloth over their hands to receive

    ca.590: 

    Practice of Communion on the tongue appears but not common.

    Xth-XIth Century:

    Communion in the hand decreases and is abolished for fear of profanation.

    XIIth-XVIth Century:

    Practice of kneeling to receive Communion becomes primary practice.

    1614: 

    After a long decrease in reception from the chalice, practice abolished to combat Hussite heresy.

    1963-1970: 

    Communion under both species permitted in most cases along with option to recieve in the hand and standing.
    1968:Permission granted for laity to distribute Communion in extraordinary circumstances for the first time in the history of the Church.

    century
    1st
    2nd
    3rd
    4th
    5th
    6th
    7th
    8th
    9th
    10th
    11th
    12th
    13th
    14th
    15th
    16th
    17th
    18th
    19th
    20th
    21st
    Communion Antiphon
      Vth Century: 

    First mention of a Communion chant. Originally the Communion song sung alternately by choir, subdeacons and laity.

    XIIth Century: 

    Length decreased to a simple antiphon said by the priest after Communion but still occassionally sung as well.

    1969:

    Antiphon may be sung during Communion. If there is no singing, it is recited by a reader or the laity. It may also berecited by the priest before he gives Communion to the faithful.

    Ablutions
      ca. 700:

    First mentions of a special hand cleansing following Communion.

    IXth century: 

    Special ceremonies for cleansing the chalice appear but only include the use of water.

    XIth Century:

    Cleansing begins to include wine.

    1256: 

    Dominican ordo introduces ceremonies that eventually become the norm for the Latin church.

    1969: 

    Use of wine made optional.

    Post-Communion Prayer
    From the earliest times:

    A prayer without a set form was used and originally combined a prayer of thanksgiving and blessing which marked the end om Mass. The blessing eventually dwindled as a separate final blessing evolved. Over the centuries the prayers were standardized.

    Oratio super populum
      3th Century: 

    Originally a prayer of blessing over the people

    6th Century: 

    Use of prayer dwindled until it was only used during Lent as a prayer over non-communicants. Some areas retained sporadic use of the prayers during the year.

    1969: 

    Prayer dropped completely

    Placeat
    Unknown: 

    Practice of the priest kissing the altar before leaving is very ancient but dat of introduction is unknown. Took place following the dismissal.

    9th Century: 

    Prayer as found in the Tridentine Ordo appears in France and spreads quickly throughout Europe.

    Middle Ages: 

    Additional prayers added without a set form.

    1570: 

    Medival additions dropped and form standarized

    1969: 

    Prayer dropped completely

    Final Blessing
      8th Century: 

    First mention of a final blessing separate from the post-communion prayer. Only given by the Pope.

    11th Century: 

    Priests geven permission te give blessing but not a mandatory part of the Mass

    14th Century: 

    final blessing given by bishop is the same as in the Tridentine missal.

    1604: 

    Final blessing given by all clergy standarized.

    1969: 

    blessing moved to before the dismissal. Many new optional blessings added.

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